Welcome to the LED Learning Center

Find out more about GESAR display components and their working parts.

GESAR Displays products come in all different shapes and sizes. Message displays, video boards and scoreboards are made up of similar components that work together to create the big picture.

Learning Led
Learning Led
What is an LED?

A light emitting diode (LED) is a tiny, electronic semiconductor that converts electric energy into visible light. The chemical compound used within an LED determines its color, brightness and power efficiency.

Unlike incandescent lamps, LEDs have no filaments that can burn out or fail.

LEDs come in two different forms.

Manufacturers use several types of LEDs to construct digital displays. The two most common are Through-Hole LEDs and Surface Mount Device (SMD) LEDs, also known as Surface Mount Technology (SMT). Each type has its respective advantages that make them preferable for different applications.

Surface Mount LEDs
Through-Hole LEDs
Learning Led SMD
Learning Led DIP

Surface Mount Devices, or SMD for short, refers to the LED lead frame mounting method. LEDs are mounted to the surface of the circuit board. The SMD contains red, green and blue die.

Through-hole LEDs are mounted with leads protruding through the circuit board and appear to stand taller. Each LED is a single-color die of red, green or blue.

What is a SMD LED?
Surface Mount Device Module

Total light emitted isn’t concentrated in a focused area since SMD LEDs do not have directional reflector cups. Instead light disperses evenly across both horizontal and vertical angles, providing wider viewing angles. This makes SMD LEDs an excellent choice for most indoor applications as well as some tighter pitch outdoor applications.

Benefits of SMD:

  • Outstanding color blending at short viewing distance
  • No color shift at extreme angles
  • Wide viewing angle
What is a Through-hole LED?

Through-hole LEDs use a reflector cup and an epoxy lens package. These combinations as well as the type of die used, plays a role in determining the elliptical viewing cone produced. A through-hole LED’s reflector cup focuses the light emitted by the die into a specific viewing area.

Benefits of Through-Hole:

  • Optimized for moderate to longer viewing distance
  • Louvers deflect sunlight for higher contrast
  • Black matte finish reduces reflection
  • Brighter than SMD LEDs
Through Hole Module
What is a module?
Learning Module

LED modules are made up of parts that form the building blocks of video displays, message centers and dynamic message signs. Rows of modules line together to arrange the LEDs in different variations depending on their product, market and purpose.

What is a pixel?

Pixels, short for picture elements, are points of light that illuminate to form letters, words, graphics, animations and video images. A pixel can be made up of a single LED, multiple LEDs of the same color or multiple LEDs of different colors. They are the smallest elements of the electronics display system that can be individually controlled and turned off or on at various brightness levels.

Learning Pixel
What is resolution?

Resolution is the number of pixels contained in the physical area of an electronic display. The greater the number of pixels per square foot, the greater the amount of detailed displayed. Resolution is determined by display size, pixel technology, pixel pitch and viewing distance.

What is viewing angle?

When choosing a display, consider where it will be installed and the angle at which the display will be viewed. Image quality will be at its best within the viewing cone of the display—where your primary intended audience should be located.

Readability angle or viewing area will exceed the optimum viewing angle depending on site-specific circumstances and ambient light conditions.

Learning Viewing angles
What are viewing distances?
Learning Viewing distance

Viewing distances are calculated based on the display type and the distance from the display. Each display will have a minimum and a maximum viewing distance that may vary based on application and intended use.

A large character will have a longer viewing distance while a small character will have a shorter viewing distance. GESAR Displays uses 50 feet for every one inch of character distance as a general point of reference. Character spacing, also known as pixel pitch, will vary between indoor and outdoor display applications.